The discipline of antenna theory has experienced vast technological changes. In response, Constantine Balanis has updated his classic text, Antenna Theory, offering the most recent look at all the necessary topics. New material includes smart antennas and fractal antennas, along with the latest applications in wireless communications. Like the previous editions, Antenna Theory, Third Edition meets the needs of electrical engineering and physics students at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate levels, and those of practicing engineers as well. It is a benchmark text for mastering the latest theory in the subject, and for better understanding the technological applications.